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NAM 215

January 12, 1954 
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announces the Eisenhower administration’s policy of “massive (nuclear) retaliation”.
The US will protect its allies through the “deterrent of massive retaliatory power”.  President Eisenhower had decided that US nuclear weapons should be the “primary means” of defense against communism.
Elected in 1952 & now almost a year into his Presidency, Eisenhower felt the US had not been pro-active against communist expansion under Truman & believed the nuclear deterrent would be less costly. 

January 12, 1963
National Action Memorandum Number 215 is signed by JFK.  The memo which is now declassified & in the “public domain” reflected US policy on the inclusion of tactical nuclear weapons.
The memo states: “Our priority will be to establish (a) US/UK force” & that (we will) “work out…arrangements for its multilateral management in which Germans can be adequately represented.”

January 12, 1966

LBJ commits the US to staying in Vietnam & justifies it on the basis of national security, principles of democracy & national sovereignty.

At the beginning of 1965, US military advisers in Vietnam had reached 200,000 & draft quotas had doubled.  By the year’s end, there were 400,000 American military personnel there.

January 12, 1919

Leaders of the “Big Four” countries begin meeting in Paris.  They include Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy & Woodrow Wilson of the United States.

Breaking with traditional diplomacy, German representatives were not invited to this preliminary round of talks.  The meetings also excluded representatives from smaller & neutral nations.

January 12, 1932

The 1st female becomes a United States Senator by special election.

Ophelia Wyatt Caraway (D) Arkansas, born near Bakerville, Tennessee, had first been appointed to fill the vacant seat left by her husband’s death.  

Senator Caraway will be re-elected in 1938.  In 1944, she is appointed to serve on the Federal Emergency Compensation Commission by FDR.

January 12, 1969
“Broadway Joe” Namath leads the New York Jets of the American Football League to a 16-7 victory over the heavily favored Baltimore Colts of the National Football League in Super Bowl III.

The victory assures the former Alabama Crimson Tide quarterback’s legacy & gives legitimacy to the AFL. 



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