jfkplusfifty

Just another WordPress.com site

Archive for the month “August, 2011”

HOT LINE IS "HOT"

August 30, 1963


HOT LINE IS “HOT”


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The telephone “hot line” between the Pentagon & the Kremlin was activated for the 1st time today.


Earlier in June, the hot line agreement was signed by representatives of the United States & USSR.


The agreement came in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 when the world came close to nuclear war.


The White House issued a statement today saying the hotline will “help reduce the risk of war occurring by accident or miscalculation.”


The 1st test message sent over the wires today from Washington was: “The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog’s back 1234567890.”



                       Kennedy Hotline


August 30, 1965


METS MANAGER CASEY STENGEL RETIRES


New York City (JFK+50) Long-time major league baseball player & manager Casey Stengel announced his retirement today ending a 56 year career.


Stengel, 75 years old, replaced Joe McCarthy as manager of the New York Yankees in 1949.  He went on to post a record of 1149 wins & 696 losses over 12 seasons while winning 10 American League pennants & 7 World Series.


Stengel was fired as manager of the Yankees at the age of 70 because they thought he was “too old” to manage. 


Stengel, in his classic style, said: “I’ll never make the mistake of being 70 again.”*


*In 1960 at the Al Smith Dinner in New York, JFK said “The worst news for the Republicans this week was that Casey Stengel had been fired.  It just shows past experience doesn’t count.” (Nixon was saying in the campaign that JFK lacked the experience to be President).



                   Casey Stengel
New York Yankees Manager (1953)


August 30, 1969


HO CHI MINH RESPONDS TO NIXON’S LETTER


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Ho Chi Minh responded to President Richard M. Nixon’s letter of July 15 today.


In the reply, the leader of North Vietnam accuses the United States of fighting “a war of aggression” & is “violating our fundamental national rights.”


Ho demands in the letter that the US withdraw its forces from Vietnam & allow his people “self-determination”.*


*Nixon does not reveal the contents of the letter until November 3.



                 Ho Chi Minh (1946)


August 30, 1983


BLUFORD BECOMES FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN  IN SPACE


Cape Canaveral, Florida (JFK+50) Lt. Col. Guion S. Bluford of the United States Air Force became the 1st African-American to be launched into outer space today.


Lt. Col Bluford, a mission specialist, was launched with his fellow astronauts aboard the space shuttle Challenger from Cape Canaveral, Florida at 2:32 a.m.


Bluford holds a PhD in the philosophy of Aeronautical Engineering from the US Air Force Institute of Technology.*

              Lt. Col. Guion S. Bluford
                          NASA Photo


August 30, 1918


LENIN SHOT BY SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARY


Moscow, USSR (JFK+50) Leader of the Communist revolution in Russia, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, was shot here in Moscow today after giving a speech at a factory.


The shooter has been identified as Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Social Revolutionary Party.


Lenin is reported to be seriously wounded but is expected to survive.*


*The retaliations for the attack on Lenin will be called “the Red Terror”.



                    Vladimir Llyich Lenin


August 30, 30 B.C.


CLEOPATRA, QUEEN OF EGYPT, DEAD BY SUICIDE


Alexandria, Egypt (JFK+50) Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, committed suicide today following the defeat of her forces against Octavian.*


*It is believed Cleopatra died by the bite of an asp (Egyptian Cobra) & symbol of divine royalty.  In 27 BC, Octavian became Augustus, ruling Egypt until his death in 14 A.D.



                 “Death of Cleopatra”
                   by Reginald Arthur

JFK GIVES VIEW OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE

August 29, 1962


JFK GIVES VIEW OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE

Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy was asked the following question at his news conference at the State Department today:

“Mr. President:  Sir, would you tell us what the Monroe Doctrine means to you today in light of conditions…in Cuba?”

The President, who has received daily briefings for several weeks about an increasing Soviet presence in Cuba, responded:

“The Monroe Doctrine means….that we would oppose a foreign power extending its power to the Western Hemisphere & that is why we oppose what is happening in Cuba today.  That is why we have cut off our trade.  That is why we will continue to give a good deal of our effort & attention to it.”*

*The Monroe Doctrine (1823) stated that efforts by European nations to colonize or interfere in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed by the United States as acts of aggression.

JFK would be shown U2 photographs in October 1962 that proved the Soviets were in the process of placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which was the beginning of the “Missile Crisis”.





                   The Monroe Doctrine
                                   Page 1
          National Archives Document
                   Online Public Access


August 29, 1962

ROBERT FROST OFF ON GOODWILL TOUR OF SOVIET UNION

Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) New England poet Robert Frost left the United States today for a goodwill tour of the Soviet Union sponsored by the State Department.

Mr. Frost, who recited a poem at JFK’s Inauguration, will give poetry readings, interviews & lectures while touring the USSR.*

*During the tour, Frost came down with “nervous indigestion” but was still able to meet with Premier Nikita Khrushchev for 90 minutes.  Mr. Frost told Khrushchev: “A great nation makes great poetry & great poetry makes a nation.”


  Robert Frost (left) on USSR Tour

August 29, 1968

HUMPHREY WINS DEMO NOMINATION

Chicago, Illinois (JFK+50) Vice President Hubert Horatio Humphrey was nominated by the delegates of the 1968 Democratic National Convention today here in Chicago.

The convention has been one of the most divisive & violent in history over the war in Vietnam.

Vice-President Humphrey supports President Lyndon B. Johnson’s policy in Vietnam while others in the party oppose it.

Student protesters have let their voices be heard on the streets of Chicago while Mayor Richard Daley, a Humphrey supporter, has used the Chicago police force to attempt to control them.

Before becoming LBJs Vice-President in 1965, Humphrey had been a senator from Minnesota since 1948.  Senator Humphrey was an advocate of civil rights, arms control, a nuclear test ban & foreign aid.  He was known as “the Happy Warrior.”*

*3 years before JFK proposed the Peace Corps, Humphrey introduced a bill to create just such an agency.  In 1960, he competed against JFK for the Democratic nomination for President.  


Hubert Humphrey died in 1978.


Two of my favorite Hubert Humphrey quotations:

“Compassion is not weakness & concern for the unfortunate is not socialism.”

“It was once said that the moral test of government is how government treats those who are in the dawn of life, the children; those who are in the twilight of life, the elderly, & those who are in the shadows of life, the sick, the needy & the handicapped.”


                    Hubert H. Humphrey
                   “The Happy Warrior”

August 29, 1975

EAMON DE VALERA DIES AT AGE OF 92

Blackrock, County Dublin, Ireland (JFK+50) The former President of Ireland (1959-1973) & head of the government of the Irish Free State as well as the leader of Ireland’s struggle for independence from Great Britain, Eamon de Valera died today at the age of 92.


                   Eamon de Valera
                         (1882-1975)

De Valera, born in New York City in 1882, was brought to Ireland at the age of 2 by his uncle.

De Valera was host for President John F. Kennedy’s state visit to Ireland in June 1963.

Mr. De Valera will be buried in Dublin’s Glasnevin Cemetery.


            Grave of Eamon de Valera
                       Dublin, Ireland

August 29, 1949

USSR EXPLODES A BOMB

Semipalatinsk, USSR (JFK+50) It has been said the only thing worse than one nation having the atomic bomb is two nations having it.  

Today, the Soviet Union became the 2nd nation to have the atomic bomb.  At a remote test site here in Semipalatinsk, the Soviets successfully detonated their 1st atomic bomb.

The explosion, rated at 20 kilotons, is roughly equal to that of the “Trinity” test explosion by the United States.*

*An American spy plane flying off the coast of Siberia picked up the 1st evidence of radioactivity from the explosion on September 3.


     Soviets explode their 1st atomic bomb

MARCH ON WASHINGTON ENDS WITH A DREAM

August 28, 1963


MARCH ON WASHINGTON ENDS WITH A DREAM


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The “March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom”, attended by 250,000 people who gathered around the Lincoln Memorial, concluded today with an emotional & stirring address by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.



Bayard Rustin & Cleveland Robinson
   March on Washington organizers
                    August 7, 1963
         Library of Congress Photo


Dr. King said:


“Even though we face…difficulties, I still have a dream…that one day this nation will rise up & live out the true meaning of its creed ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal’.


When we allow freedom (to) ring….we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children….will…join hands & sing….’Free at last,  free at last, thank God Almighty, we’re free at last.'”


After the event, civil rights leaders, including Dr. King & Roy Wilkins, met with President Kennedy at the White House who greeted them with the words: “I have a dream.”*


*The March on Washington was initiated by A. Philip Randolph who had planned an earlier march in 1941.



Dr. King Gives “I Have a Dream” Speech


August 28, 1963



MAHALIA JACKSON ADVISES KING TO “TELL THEM ABOUT THE DREAM”


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. asked the Queen of Gospel Music to sing “I’ve Been Buked & I’ve Been Scorned” before he spoke at the March on Washington today at the Lincoln Memorial.


Before she sang, however, Miss Jackson said to Dr. King: “Martin, tell them about the dream”.*


*Dr. King had included the “I have a dream” theme in previous speeches & sermons but it was not included in his March on Washington address.  He followed Mahalia Jackson’s advice & ended his remarks with “I have a dream…”.



                   Mahalia Jackson
             Queen of Gospel Music
Photo by Carl Van Vechten (1962)


August 28, 1955


EMMETT TILL MURDERED IN MISSISSIPPI


Money, Mississippi (JFK+50) Emmett Till, African-American teenager from Chicago, Illinois, was brutally murdered in Money, Mississippi today & his body was dumped into the Tallahatchie River.


Till was in Mississippi visiting relatives & while at Bryan’s Grocery & Meat Market in Money, according to witnesses, “flirted” with the store owner’s wife who is white.*


*Emmett Till’s corpse was recovered 3 days later & returned by the request of his mother to Chicago for burial.  On September 23 an all-white jury found accused murderers J.W. Milam & Roy Bryant not guilty.



            Remains of Bryant’s Grocery 
                     Money, Mississippi
          Photo by WhisperToMe (2009)




“Twas down in Mississippi, not so long ago
 When a young boy from Chicago 
 walked through a Southern door
 This boy’s fateful tragedy you should remember well
 The color of his skin was black
 and his name was Emmett Till


 If you can’t speak out against this kind of thing
 A crime that’s so unjust
 Your eyes are filled with dead man’s dirt
 Your mind is filled with dust
 Your arms & legs they must be in shackles  & chains
 And your blood it must refuse to flow
 For you to let this human race
 fall down so God-awful low.”


“The Ballad of Emmett Till”
             by Bob Dylan


August 28, 1961


JFK WELCOMES 1ST PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy welcomed the 1st group of Peace Corps volunteers to the White House today.


The President told the young men & women:


“You will be the personification of a special group of young Americans & if you can impress (with) your commitment to freedom (and) to your pride in your country….the influence may be far-reaching.”


These 1st Peace Corps volunteers will go to Ghana & Tanganyika to teach high school students.


JFK Greets Peace Corps Volunteers


August 28, 1968


ANTI-WAR PROTESTERS & POLICE CLASH IN CHICAGO


Chicago, Illinois (JFK+50) Thousands of anti-Vietnam War protesters massed today in downtown Chicago as the 1968 Democratic National Convention is in session in the city.


Chicago Mayor Richard Daley, a supporter of Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, sent in police to restore order.


The police, however, used clubs & tear gas to get the job done.  Many protesters were beaten, arrested & taken to jail.


All of this was broadcast on television while the protesters chanted: “The whole world is watching.”*


*This event has been described as a “turning point in the cold war” as more & more Americans reject the necessity for fighting in Southeast Asia.



       Police Use Clubs on Protesters
              Chicago, Illinois (1968)


August 28, 1917


SUFFRAGISTS ARRESTED AT THE WHITE HOUSE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Women suffragists gathered in front of the White House today in support of a constitutional amendment which would give women the right to vote.


President Woodrow Wilson, who has opposed such an amendment, drove out of the gates of the mansion today & tipped his hat to the suffragists.


Later, however, an altercation broke out between the suffragists & some bystanders who apparently resented the women’s signs opposing the war (WWI).


Some of the suffragists were arrested & taken to jail.



Suffragists at the White House Gate
                      January 1917

HOUSE VOTES FOR AMENDMENT TO BAN POLL TAX

August 27, 1962


HOUSE VOTES FOR AMENDMENT TO BAN POLL TAX


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The United States House of Representatives today voted for a constitutional amendment that would forbid the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in federal elections.


5 states require a poll tax.  They are Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas & Virginia.


The vote in favor of the amendment was 295 to 86.


President Kennedy expressed approval for today’s vote.  JFK said:


“This culminates a legislative effort of many years to bring about the end of this artificial bar to the right to vote in some of our states.



             Receipt for Poll Tax Payment


August 27, 1963


JFK REMINDS STUDENTS OF DEFINITION OF HAPPINESS BY THE GREEKS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy spoke to about 5000 students today on the South Lawn of the White House.


The students are in town to attend a government seminar.


The President urged the students to pursue a career in government service.
He said it would be a career that would offer them “happiness” as defined by the Greeks as:


“the full use of your powers along lines of excellence.”


August 27, 1952


NEW YORK TIMES FRONT PAGE DOMINATED BY RED SCARE


New York City (JFK+50) The New York Times today carried no less than 3 articles on its front page on the impact the “Red Scare” will have on the upcoming elections.


In one article, the Times reports that the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, dominated by Republicans, has charged the Radio Writers Guild is dominated by a “small group of communists”.


Another article reports the American Legion is demanding, for the 3rd year in a row, that President Truman fire his Secretary of State Dean Acheson for a “lack of vigor” in fighting communism.


The 3rd article quotes Democratic presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson as being critical of the use of “patriotism” by Senator Joe McCarthy in attacking “good Americans” such as Acheson & General George C. Marshall.



August 27, 1908


LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON BORN IN TEXAS


Stonewall, Texas (JFK+50) Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. & Rebekah Baines Johnson announced today the birth of their son, Lyndon Baines Johnson, here in Stonewall, Texas.*


*LBJ will graduate from Southwestern Texas State Teachers College in 1930. He taught at Pearsall High School & Sam Houston High School before entering politics.



  LBJ at Home in Stonewall, Texas
           LBJ Library Photo (1915)


August 27, 1776


WASHINGTON LOSES AT BROOKLYN HEIGHTS


Brooklyn Heights, New York (JFK+50) Continental forces under General George Washington were defeated here today at the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.


The Continentals suffered more than a thousand casualties while the British, under General William Howe & his brother Admiral Richard Howe, lost 400.


The good news for the Americans, however, was that Washington was able to retreat with his forces* to Manhattan by boat.**


*In one of my US history classes I was talking about Lee retreating back to Virginia after the Battle of Antietam when a girl with a puzzled look on her face asked:  “But why didn’t Lee’s men retreat with him?”


**The British captured New York City on September 15 & would hold it until the war’s end.



August 27, 1979


MOUNTBATTEN KILLED IN BOMB BLAST BY IRA


London, England (JFK+50) Lord Louis Mountbatten was killed today when Irish Republican Army (IRA) terrorists set off a 50 pound bomb hidden aboard his fishing vessel.


The 79 year old Mountbatten, the 2nd cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, was enjoying the day with his family off Ireland’s northwest coast when the bomb exploded.


He was commander of the 5th destroyer flotilla in WWII & in 1942 was appointed chief of operations & eventually became Supreme Allied Commander of Southeast Asia.*


*This was the 1st attack by the IRA on the British Royal Family.



             Lord Louis Mountbatten
       Photo by Allan Warren (1976)

SOVIETS SAY ICBM TEST IS SUCCESSFUL

August 26, 1957


SOVIETS SAY ICBM TEST IS SUCCESSFUL


Moscow, USSR (JFK+50) The Soviet Union announced today that it has successfully tested an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) with the capability of being fired from anywhere in the world.


The Soviet government provided no additional information.*


*This announcement initiates a debate in the United States as to whether or not a “missile gap” exists with the Soviets being in the lead.  JFK will raise the issue during his 1960 campaign for President.



                Dnepr Launch Vehicle
              Photo by ISC Kosmotras


August 26, 1959


BRITISH MOTOR COMPANY UNVEILS “MINI” CAR


London, England (JFK+50) The British Motor Company today unveiled the “Mark I” front wheel drive Mini” car.


The “Mini” is priced at $800 & will be marketed as the “Austin 7” & the “Morris Mini”.*


*By 1962 both cars would be called the “Mini.  Production halted in the year 2000 with 5.3 million units produced & it was proclaimed the “European Car of the Century.”



               1st Morris Mini Sold
         in Arlington, Texas (1959)


August 26, 1960


JFK SPEAKS AT VFW CONVENTION IN DETROIT


Detroit, Michigan (JFK+50) Senator John F. Kennedy, 1960 Democratic Nominee for President of the United States, spoke to the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Convention here in Detroit today.


Senator Kennedy said to the veterans:


“I would like to be able to say…that the United States is the first in the world militarily, economically, scientifically & educationally….but I cannot make these claims.  The harsh facts….are that our security & leadership are both slipping.”


JFK continued…


“I believe that there can be only one possible defense policy for the United States…..FIRST…..PERIOD!”*


*JFK’s father brought his children up to believe that if you are going to compete, nothing is acceptable but first.  He would say: “Second is a loser.”



                    JFK Speaks to VFW


August 26, 1964


LBJ NOMINATED FOR PRESIDENT BY DEMOCRATS


Atlantic City, New Jersey (JFK+50) President Lyndon Baines Johnson was nominated here in Atlantic City tonight by the delegates of the 1964 Democratic National Convention.


Mr. Johnson assumed the Presidency upon the death of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.*


*LBJ will choose Hubert Horatio Humphrey of Minnesota as his running mate & the ticket will win in a landslide victory in November.


August 26, 1968


DIVIDED DEMOCRATS CONVENE IN CHICAGO


Chicago, Illinois (JFK+50) The delegates of the 1968 Democratic National Convention convened here in Chicago today in what may prove to be the most divided party in US history.


Senators Eugene McCarthy & George McGovern proposed a platform to halt the bombing of North Vietnam & to negotiate a withdrawal of both US & North Vietnamese military forces from South Vietnam.


Other delegates support President Johnson’s efforts to reduce American involvement & begin peace talks.


With the convention in session, thousands of anti-Vietnam War protesters have gathered in the streets of Chicago.



Democratic National Convention
          Chicago, Illinois (1968)


August 26, 1974


CHARLES LINDBERGH DIES AT AGE 72


Maui, Hawaii (JFK+50) Charles Augustus Lindbergh, the 1st man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, died here in Maui today at the age of 72.


Lindbergh, born in Detroit in 1902, died of lymphoma.


He will be buried at the Palapala Ho’omau Church in Kipahulu, Maui.



August 26, 1939


FIRST MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL GAME TELEVISED


Brooklyn, New York (JFK+50) W2XBS (later WNBC) televised the 1st Major League baseball game in history today with Red Barber providing the audio.


The game between the Cincinnati Reds & Brooklyn Dodgers was played at Ebbets Field.


There are only about 400 TV sets in the New York area & the television is being showcased at the 1939 New York World’s Fair.*


*The black & white image quality was poor as the cameras of the day could not capture motion with clarity.



              1st Televised Baseball Game
             Princeton v. Columbia (1939)





TED KENNEDY DIES AT HOME IN HYANNIS PORT

August 25, 2009


TED KENNEDY DIES AT HOME IN HYANNIS PORT


Hyannis Port, Massachusetts (JFK+50) Senator Edward M. “Ted” Kennedy passed away today at his home here in Hyannis Port.


The Senator had battled brain cancer for more than a year.


The Kennedy family has issued the following statement:


“We’ve lost the irreplaceable center of our family & joyous light of our lives, but the inspiration of his faith, optimism & perseverance will live in our hearts forever.  He loved this country & devoted his life to serving it.”


As the “Lion of the Senate”, Ted Kennedy, who was 1st elected in 1962, championed health care reform & was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama.*


*Senator Kennedy was presiding over the Senate on November 22, 1963 when he was told that JFK had been shot in Dallas.  



  Ted Kennedy with President Obama
                        April 21, 2009
at the signing of the Serve America Act


August 25, 1967


MCNAMARA SAYS US BOMBING HAS LITTLE EFFECT ON NORTH VIETNAM


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara said today that US bombing of North Vietnam has had little effect on its “war-making capability”.


McNamara refused a request from US military commanders to bomb all MIG bases in North Vietnam.



     US Bombing of North Vietnam
                    June 14, 1966
      Photo by Lt. Col. Cecil J. Poss
      Department of Defense Photo


August 25, 1950


TRUMAN ISSUES ORDER PUTTING RAILROADS UNDER CONTROL OF US ARMY


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Harry S Truman today issued an Executive Order today putting all railroads in the nation under the control of the US Army at 4 p.m. on August 27, 1950 in anticipation of a crippling strike by railroad workers.


Truman said that “government seizure of the railroads is imperative for the protection of American citizens as well as the national defense & security.”*


*The rail strike will last 21 months.



                 President Truman 


August 25. 1945


JOHN BIRCH KILLED BY COMMUNIST CHINESE


Xi’an Shaanxi, China (JFK+50) John Birch, an American missionary to China before World War II & a captain in the US Army during the war, was shot & bayoneted to death here today.


Birch was in command of a Special Services team when he got into a confrontation with a Communist Chinese officer.


After his hands were tied, Birch was shot & reportedly bayoneted multiple times.*


*John Birch, a fundamentalist Baptist, became the 1st casualty of the “Cold War”.  Born in India, Birch was 27 years old when he was killed.


The right wing John Birch Society founded in the 1950s was named in his honor.

        
                              John Birch


August 25, 1944


PARIS IS LIBERATED 


Paris, France (JFK+50) After more than 4 years of Nazi occupation, Paris was liberated today by the French 2nd Armored Division & the US 4th Infantry Division.


This afternoon General Charles de Gaulle led a triumphant march down the Champs d’Elysees.


Paris fell to the Germans on June 14, 1940.



            US Army Victory Parade
                          Paris, France
                     August 25, 1944


August 25, 1939


WIZARD OF OZ MOVIE OPENS NATIONWIDE


The film produced by MGM Studios & based on the children’s book by L. Frank Baum, “The Wizard of Oz” opened in theaters across the nation today.*


*“The Wizard of Oz” was 1st televised in 1956 & watched by 45 million people.


SOLEMN WARNING ISSUED TO SOVIETS ON BERLIN CRISIS

August 24, 1961


SOLEMN WARNING ISSUED TO SOVIETS ON BERLIN CRISIS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The Kennedy administration today released a statement declaring:


 “the United States must serve a solemn warning to the Soviet Union that any interference by the Soviet Government or its East German regime with free access to West Berlin would be an aggressive act for the consequences of which the Soviet government would bear full responsibility.”



                 Flag of West Berlin
                        (1949-1990)


August 24, 1962


JFK ISSUES ORDER ON BRONZE STAR


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy today issued an Executive Order to extend the eligibility for the BRONZE STAR to American soldiers serving in Vietnam & Laos where the United States is not “technically” at war.

                        
                       The Bronze Star


August 24, 1954


CONGRESS PASSES COMMUNIST CONTROL ACT


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The Congress of the United States passed the Communist Control Act today.  The act states that:


“The Communist Party of the United States is in fact an instrumentality of a conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States.”


The act states further that the party is a “continuing danger to the security of the United States”.


The Communist Control Act is basically declaring that the Communist Party should be outlawed in the United States of America but gives no explanation of how that is to be accomplished.



August 24, 1821


SPAIN ACCEPTS MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE


Cordoba, Veracruz, Mexico (JFK+50) The government of Spain today accepted the independence of Mexico.


Spanish Viceroy Juan de O’Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba today approving a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.



                   Tradados de Cordoba
                         August 24, 1821


August 24, 1814


BRITISH LAUNCH ATTACK ON WASHINGTON


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) British forces today launched a surprise attack on Washington, D.C. as President Madison & the Congress fled into Virginia.


The British army under General Robert Ross overwhelmed an inexperienced US militia at Bladensburg, Maryland opening the way into the capital city.*


*The British withdrew from Washington on August 26 & President Madison returned to a scorched city.  


The President’s House was reconstructed in 1817. Painted a bright white color, it soon became known as “The White House.



              Burning of Washington 

JFK GREETS 1 MILLIONTH VISITOR TO THE WHITE HOUSE

August 23, 1961


JFK GREETS 1 MILLIONTH VISITOR TO THE WHITE HOUSE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) John F. Kennedy, just 7 months after moving in as the 35th President of the United States, greeted the 1 millionth visitor to the White House today.


The “lucky” visitor, from the state of Georgia, & his family were given the opportunity to meet the President in person.


This marks the 1st time in history that a million visitors have toured the White House in any single year.*


*In an appearance on Mrs. Kennedy’s televised tour of the White House in February 1962, JFK said that a visit to the White House will make history come alive, particularly for young people.


August 23, 1962


JFK ORDERS INCREASE IN COVERT ANTI-CASTRO ACTIVITIES


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Kennedy today ordered an increase in covert anti-Castro activities in response to the growing threat of a Soviet military build up in Cuba.


JFK requested contingency plans in the event the USSR places nuclear missiles on the island 90 miles from Florida.


August 23, 1989


PETE ROSE BANNED FROM BASEBALL FOR LIFE


Pete Rose, who played for the Cincinnati Reds from 1963 to 1986 & holds the Major League records for most hits, most games played, most at bats & most outs, was banned from baseball for life today as punishment for betting on baseball games.


Rose, who most likely will also be prohibited from election to the Baseball Hall of Fame, made 17 “All Star” appearances at 5 different positions.*


*Pete Rose confessed in his book “My Prison Without Bars.”



                    Pete Rose “Charlie Hustle”
                   Photo by Kjunstorm (2008)


August 23, 1939


GERMANY & USSR SIGN NON-AGGRESSION PACT


Moscow, USSR (JFK+50) The world was taken by surprise today when a non-aggression pact was signed here in Moscow by the representatives of Nazi Germany & the Soviet Union.


J. Von Ribbentrop signed for Germany while V. M. Moltov signed for the Soviet Union.*


*The pact will be in effect until Germany breaks it on June 22, 1941 by invading the USSR.



Moltov signs Non-Aggression Pact
                August 23, 1939
        Library of Congress Photo


August 23, 1927


SACCO & VANZETTI ARE ELECTROCUTED


Boston, Massachusetts (JFK+50) Italian-born anarchists Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed by electrocution here today at Charlestown State Prison.


The pair were convicted on July 14, 1921 of murder committed during a payroll robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts.



                            Sacco & Vanzetti


August 23, 1926


RUDOLPH VALENTINO DIES AT AGE 31


New York City (JFK+50) Male star of the silent screen, Rudolph Valentino, died unexpectedly today of a ruptured ulcer.


The 31 year old screen idol was born Rodolfo Guglielmi in Italy.*


*Valentino, Hollywood’s 1st male sex symbol, was paid tribute by 100,000 fans who lined the streets as his coffin passed.



                 Rudolph Valentino


August 23, 1814


DOLLEY MADISON SAVES WASHINGTON PORTRAIT AS BRITISH INVADE CAPTIAL


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) First Lady Dolley Madison, with British troops headed toward the President’s House, ordered the Gilbert Stuart portrait cut out of its frame, rolled up, & whisked away to safety today.*



George Washington Portrait
            by Gilbert Stuart
     White House Collection


*The portrait was actually a copy of Stuart’s original portrait.  The next day, the British captured the President’s House & set it afire.  


The attack on Washington, D.C. was part of the War of 1812 between Great Britain & the United States.



                  Dolley Madison
        White House Collection


August 23, 1784


“STATE OF FRANKLAND” DECLARED


Jonesborough, North Carolina* (JFK+50) Representatives of 4 counties of upper western North Carolina declared their independence today & formed the State of Frankland.


*Today Jonesborough & all counties which were part of the “State of Franklin” are in Upper East Tennessee.





The representatives are from Washington, Sullivan, Spencer & Greene counties.**


**A petition for statehood was filed with the name changed to “Franklin” but it fell short of the two-thirds majority needed to pass.



Replica of Capitol of State of Franklin
              Greeneville, Tennessee
   Photo by Brian Stansberry (2008)



DE GAULLE SURVIVES ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT

August 22, 1962


DE GAULLE SURVIVES ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT


Paris, France (JFK+50)  French President Charles De Gaulle survived an assassination attempt here in Paris today as he & his wife were riding to the Orly Airport in their black Citroen DS.


12 gunmen opened fire approaching from the rear.  2 of De Gaulle’s motorcycle guards were killed & the rear window of the Citroen was blown out.  All 4 tires of DeGaulle’s vehicle were pierced with bullets.


The gunmen are reportedly members of the “Secret Army Organization”.


De Gaulle’s driver was able to break out of a skid & accelerate out of harm’s way. President & Lady De Gaulle were both uninjured.*


*The story of this attempted assassination of the President of France was dramatized in Frederick Forsyth’s “The Day of the Jackal” which became a 1969 movie.



                         1974 Citroen DS
             Photo by Joe Mabel (2007)


August 22, 1962


ADMINISTRATION SOURCES SAY VIETNAM WAR HAS BECOME A “STALEMATE”


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Unnamed Kennedy administration officials were quoted in the New York Times today as saying they estimate there are 20,000 guerrilla troops in South Vietnam.


Despite hundreds of military engagements with encouraging victories by the South Vietnamese Army, the numbers of Viet Cong (South Vietnamese communists) have grown.


These same sources say the Vietnam War has become a “stalemate”.


August 22, 1962


JFK ANNOUNCES “HISTORIC RENDEZVOUS” AT THE NORTH POLE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy announced at his news conference at the State Department today that 2 US nuclear powered submarines, the USS Skate & the USS Sea Dragon, “have completed a historic rendezvous under the polar ice pack & then surfaced together through a small opening in the ice at the North Pole”.



                    USS Skate
       On the Arctic Surface
       US Navy Photo (1959)


August 22, 1962


JFK CONFIRMS SOVIETS ARE AN INCREASING PRESENCE IN CUBA


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Kennedy, at his news conference today, confirmed reports that Soviet men & supplies have arrived in large numbers in recent weeks.


When asked about Soviet troops, JFK said:


 “We do not have information, but an increased number of technicians. We are examining it.  What we are talking about are supplies & technicians of a rather intensive quantity in recent weeks.”*


*This was the buildup of missile sites & Soviet personnel in Cuba which culminated in the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.





August 22, 1961


MRS. KENNEDY HOSTS CONCERT FOR HANDICAPPED CHILDREN


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President & Mrs. John F. Kennedy welcomed handicapped children today to the White House for a special concert given on the South Lawn.


This is the 1st in a series of concerts by & for young people.  They have been planned & sponsored by the First Lady.


Today’s concert featured a symphony orchestra of the Brevard Music Camp of Transylvania County, North Carolina.


JFK said the musicians who performed today are “a great national cultural asset.”



Transylvania County, North Carolina


August 22, 1963


SOUTH VIETNAMESE AMBASSADOR RESIGNS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Tran Van Phuong, South Vietnam’s ambassador to the United States, resigned in protest today against his own government’s harsh treatment of Buddhists.




August 22, 1989


NOLAN RYAN GETS 5000TH CAREER STRIKEOUT


Arlington, Texas (JFK+50) Ace fastball pitcher for the Texas Rangers, Nolan Ryan, fanned the 5000th batter of his career today.


Despite setting this astounding record, the Rangers lost the game 0 to 2.


Ryan had 13 Ks & allowed just 5 hits.


Nolan Ryan requested that the game not be stopped to honor his feat, but after the 5th inning, he was saluted on video tape by President George H.W. Bush.*


*Bush’s son & future US President, George W. Bush, was owner of the Texas Rangers in 1989.



August 22, 1922


IRISH REVOLUTIONARY MICHAEL COLLINS IS KILLED IN AMBUSH


West County Cork, Ireland (JFK+50) Irish revolutionary Michael Collins was killed today in an ambush here in west County Cork, Ireland.


Collins was a supporter of independence for all of Ireland & was serving as finance minister for the newly established Irish Free State.


Republican extremists are believed to be behind the ambush.



                        Michael Collins

JOMO KENYATTA RELEASED FROM PRISON

August 21, 1961


JOMO KENYATTA RELEASED FROM PRISON


Nairobi, Kenya (JFK+50) Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the independence movement in Kenya, was released today by British colonial authorities after serving nearly nine years in prison.


Kenyatta, educated by Christian missionaries, became involved in African nationalist movements in Nairobi.


He received a formal education in the 1930s & published “Facing Mount Kenya” in 1947 & became president of the Kenya African Union.


Although an advocate of non-violence, he was imprisoned for “managing a terrorist organization”.*


*On December 12, 1963, Kenya won its independence & Kenyatta became prime minister & later president.



              Jomo Kenyatta Statue
                    Nairobi, Kenya
            Photo by Daryona (2010)


August 21, 1963


VIETNAMESE SPECIAL FORCES ATTACK BUDDHISTS


Saigon, South Vietnam (JFK+50) Special Forces loyal to President Diem’s brother, Ngo Dinh Nho, attacked Buddhist pagodas today & arrested 1400 Buddhists.


While the majority of people in South Vietnam are Buddhist, Diem & most of his supporters are Catholic.


Earlier in May, the Buddhists held demonstrations against Diem’s government.



                     LBJ & Ngo Dinh Nho
                             May 12, 1961
                      LBJ Library Photo


August 21, 1959


HAWAII BECOMES 50TH STATE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill today which makes the Hawaiian Islands the 50th state.


The President also issued an order for the US flag to bear 50 stars arranged in staggering rows.

             Iolani Palace, Honolulu
               Photo by Jiang (2005)


August 21, 1957


JFK PROPOSES MORE AID TO COMMUNIST SATELLITE NATIONS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts, a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, proposed today a bill to provide more financial aid to communist satellite nations other than North Korea or Red China.


Senator Kennedy stipulates in the proposed bill, however, that such aid must help these countries achieve economic or political independence from the Soviet Union as well as improved relations with the United States.


August 21, 1954


KENNEDY APPOINTED TO SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts was appointed to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee today by Vice President Richard M. Nixon.


Senator Kennedy said:


“I have long regarded our Point 4 program to be one of the keystones of this nation’s foreign policy.”


August 21, 1936


JOE KENNEDY AUTHORS “I’M FOR ROOSEVELT”


New York City (JFK+50) New York publishers Reynal & Hitchcock released today a 149 page book by Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. titled “I’m For Roosevelt”.


The book demonstrates how the programs & policies of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt have helped revitalize the American economy.



August 21, 1858


LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES OPEN IN OTTAWA


Ottawa, Illinois (JFK+50) The first of seven face to face debates between Illinois senatorial candidates Stephen A. Douglas & Abraham Lincoln were held today here in Ottawa.


Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, hopes to unseat incumbent Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas in this year’s election.


The main topic of the debates is the issue of whether or not slavery should be allowed to spread into the western territories. 


Lincoln has taken a strong stand against the spread of slavery while Douglas is open to allowing the settlers of the territories decide the fate of slavery by vote.


In today’s debate, Lincoln said:


“I have no purpose….to interfere with the institution of slavery in states where it exists.  I have no purpose to introduce political & social equality between the white & black races, but there is no reason….why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence.”



August 21, 1831


SLAVES REVOLT IN SOUTHAMPTON COUNTY, VIRGINIA


Southampton County, Virginia (JFK+50) Nat Turner along with seven followers murdered his owner, Joseph Travis, along with the Travis family & has set out across the countryside hoping to rally other slaves to his cause.*


*Over the next 2 days, Nat Turner & 75 followers kill 60 whites before being overwhelmed by the state militia.  Turner himself was not captured until late October & was tried, convicted & sentences to death.


Nat Turner was hanged on November 11, 1831.


The Turner Rebellion was the largest slave revolt in US history.



                Capture of Nat Turner
                    Bettman Archives







Post Navigation