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Archive for the month “July, 2011”

CELEBREZZE SUCCEEDS RIBICOFF AT HEW

July 31, 1961


CELEBREZZE SUCCEEDS RIBICOFF AT HEW


Washington, D.C (JFK+50) Anthony J. Celebrezze, former mayor of the city of Cleveland, Ohio, was sworn in to office today as JFK’s new Secretary of Health, Education & Welfare.


Secretary Celebrezze, who was born in Anzi, Italy & moved to the United States with his family at the age of 2, succeeds Abraham Ribicoff.


This is the 1st member of JFK’s original cabinet appointees to be replaced.*


*Celebrezze continued at HEW under LBJ but on August 17, 1965 he resigned & 2 days later was appointed to the US Court of Appeals where he served until his death in 1998.



                 Anthony J. Celebrezze


July 31, 1962


JFK CONCLUDES TALKS WITH PHOUMA OF LAOS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Kennedy has concluded 4 days of talks with Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma of Laos.


In a joint statement issued from the White House, JFK confirms “the determination of the United States” that Laos remain independent & neutral.


The Prime Minister also confirmed his commitment to peace in his nation & in Southeast Asia.  His commitment follows the recent official declaration of neutrality by Laos.


Mr. Phouma also expressed thanks to United States for its contribution in the peace settlement.*


*JFK also met today with Brazilian ambassador Roberto De Oliveira Campus & a group of students from Brazil.


July 31, 1975


TEAMSTERS BOSS HOFFA DISAPPEARS


Detroit, Michigan (JFK+50) The head of the Teamsters Union, James Riddle Hoffa, disappeared today after last being seen in his car in the parking lot of a restaurant in a Detroit suburb.


Jimmy Hoffa became president of the Teamsters Union in 1957 but was the target of government investigations during the 1960s for his associations with organized crime.


In 1967, Hoffa was convicted of bribery & sentenced to 15 years in prison.


President Nixon made possible his release, however, in 1971 on the condition Hoffa would not participate in union activities for a period of 10 years.


Hoffa was last seen around 2:45 this afternoon in his car which was in the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox Restaurant in Bloomfield, a Detroit suburb.


When he did not return home, Hoffa’s wife made a call to police to report him missing.*


*Jimmy Hoffa reportedly said when he was informed that JFK had been assassinated: “Well, Bobby Kennedy is just another lawyer now.”  


Hoffa was declared legally dead on July 30, 1982.



                RFK & Jimmy Hoffa
      Congressional Investigation
                September 17, 1958


July 31, 1953


SENATOR ROBERT A. TAFT DIES OF CANCER


New York City (JFK+50) Senator Robert A. Taft (R-Ohio) died of cancer at New York Hospital today at the age of 63.


Senator Taft, the son of former President William Howard Taft, a conservative Republican, was a critic of FDR’s New Deal when he first went to the Senate in 1938.


Taft also was an opponent of Truman’s policy of the containment of communism.  He also opposed US membership in NATO.


Senator Taft will be laid to rest at Indian Hill Episcopal Church Cemetery in Cincinatti, Ohio.*


*JFK named Bob Taft as one of the 5 greatest US senators in 1957.



             Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio


July 31, 1875


FORMER PRESIDENT ANDREW JOHNSON DIES


Elizabethton, Tennessee (JFK+50) The 17th President of the United States & the 1st US president to be impeached, Andrew Johnson, died here today while visiting his daughter.


Andrew Johnson was born in North Carolina but moved to Greeneville, Tennessee where he was elected mayor in 1834.  The following year he became a state legislator & in 1843 became a United States senator.


In 1864, President Lincoln chose him as his running mate to unify the Republican party & the nation.


On April 15, 1865, Andrew Johnson became President of the United States upon Lincoln’s death.


While Johnson’s presidency was troubled, he escaped conviction on impeachment charges by a single vote & was able to complete his term.


Andrew Johnson will be buried in Greeneville, Tennessee.




PRAVDA PUBLISHES KHRUSCHEV’S VISION

 July 30, 1961


PRAVDA PUBLISHES KHRUSHCHEV’S VISION


Moscow, USSR (JFK+50) The Soviet newspaper Pravda published today Premier Nikita Khruschev’s vision for the future of Soviet communism.


The Premier, a believer in the superiority of the communist system, predicts the ultimate downfall of the capitalistic system.


Khrushchev also, according to Pravda, is determined to avoid nuclear war & recognizes the “necessity” of co-existence with the West.



           Khrushchev at the UN
Library of Congress Photo (1960)


July 30, 1961


KENNEDYS ENJOY TYPICAL SUNDAY ON CAPE COD


Hyannisport, Massachusetts (JFK+50) President & Mrs. John F. Kennedy enjoyed a typical Sunday here with family & friends.


They attended mass at St. Francis Xavier Church & then spent the afternoon sailing on the Marlin in the company of Pat Lawford, her daughter Sydney, Eunice Shriver, George Thomas, JFK’s valet & James Rowley, Director of the US Secret Service.


The President also found time to go for a golf cart ride to the beach with his children.



     JFK & Children on the Golf Cart
          The Kennedy Compound
       Hyannisport, Massachusetts
         Photo by Robert Knudsen
         JFK Library Photo (1962)


July 30, 1965


LBJ SIGNS MEDICARE BILL INTO LAW


Independence, Missouri (JFK+50) President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law today the Medicare Act of 1965.


The historic ceremony took place at the Harry S Truman Library here in Independence.


Not only was the former Democratic President on hand for the ceremony, he was the 1st enrollee as well as the 1st to get his “Medicare Card”.


Mr. Truman was so honored because he was the 1st President of the United States to propose a national health insurance program for senior citizens.


Medicare, which is expected to cover nearly 20,000 citizens next year, is available to those who are 65 years of age or older.


The program is funded, like Social Security, by payroll taxes.



          LBJ Signs Medicare Act of 1965
                 Independence, Missouri
                          July 30, 1965
                   LBJ Library Photo


July 30, 1969


NIXON VISITS SOUTH VIETNAM


Saigon, South Vietnam (JFK+50) Six months after being sworn in as the 37th President of the United States, Richard M. Nixon made a brief stop today in South Vietnam.


The President is on his 1st overseas trip as Chief Executive.


Mr. Nixon met with President Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam to discuss US troop withdrawals.

The President also met with US military commanders as well as troops from the 1st Infantry Division.




               White House Photo


July 30, 1956


“IN GOD WE TRUST” MOTTO BECOMES LAW


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law today the bill making the phrase “In God We Trust” the official motto of the United States of America.


PL84-140 also requires the phrase to appear on all US paper currency.


The President said:


“In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America’s heritage & future.”*


*The 1st US paper currency to have “In God We Trust” included was printed in 1957.



July 30, 1619


HOUSE OF BURGESSES MEETS IN JAMESTOWNE


Jamestowne, Virginia (JFK+50) The 1st elected legislative assembly in the New World met today here in the English settlement’s church building.


The legislature was called into session by Governor George Yeardley.


Any laws passed by the body must meet with the approval of the London Company.



               House of Burgesses
         Williamsburg, Virginia
    Photo by John White (2003)

NASA CREATED BY US CONGRESS

July 29, 1958


NASA CREATED BY US CONGRESS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The Congress of the United States today passed a law creating the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA).


NASA is to be a civilian agency created to operate the United States space program.


The agency has been created in the aftermath of the October 4, 1957 launch of the world’s 1st man-made satellite, Sputnik, by the Soviet Union.


Earlier this year, on January 1, the United States launched into space Explorer I, our 1st successful satellite.

July 29, 1961


JFK CONGRATULATES GRISSOM 


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy placed a call by radio telephone from the White House today to the Randolph & congratulated Air Force Captain Virgil “Gus” Grissom on his successful spaceflight.


JFK today also signed into law an amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act which provides for more efficient water pollution control.


July 29, 1965


101st AIRBORNE ARRIVES IN SOUTH VIETNAM


Cam Ranh Bay, South Vietnam (JFK+50) 4000 paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army arrived here today.


Most of the operations conducted by the 101st are to be in the Central Highlands & the A Shau Valley.*


*During its time of service in Vietnam, the 101st earned 17 Medals of Honor for bravery in combat.



   101st Airborne Soldiers in Vietnam


July 29, 1981


PRINCE CHARLES WEDS LADY DIANA


London, England (JFK+50) Prince Charles, the heir to the British throne, married Lady Diana Spencer today in a lavish ceremony at St. Paul’s Cathedral.


A television audience estimated at 750 million people watched the wedding around the world.


The service was a traditional Church of England ceremony which was presided over by the Most Reverend Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury.


The royal couple plan to honeymoon aboard the royal yacht Britannia which will take them on an 11 day cruise on the Mediterranean Sea.



               Prince Charles, Lady Diana, 
                    Nancy & Ronald Reagan
              Reagan Library Photo (1985)





     John Travolta Dances With Lady Di
           Reagan Library Photo (1985)


July 29, 1588


SPANISH ARMADA IS DEFEATED 


London, England (JFK+50) Spain’s so-called “Invincible Armada” proved to be not quite so invincible today as it was defeated by the English Navy after 8 hours of fighting off the French coast.


The English Navy was led by Lord Charles Howard & Sir Francis Drake while the Spanish Armada was led by the Duke of Medina Sidonia.


The British Navy was composed of 34 war ships while the Spanish had 22.


By the time the battle ended today, the Spanish had lost half their fleet & more than 15,000 men dead.


The Armada was forced to retreat to Scotland & the latest reports say that it is limping back to Spain.*


*The defeat of the Spanish Armada is a major turning point in world history. As a result, Great Britain became a world power.  The event also ushered in the era of long range naval warfare.



                Spain’s Invincible Armada

JACQUELINE BOUVIER BORN IN SOUTHAMPTON, NEW YORK

July 28, 1929


JACQUELINE BOUVIER BORN IN SOUTHAMPTON, NEW YORK


Southampton, New York (JFK+50) Mr. & Mrs. John Vernou Bouvier III announced today the birth of their baby girl named Jacqueline Bouvier.


Mr. Bouvier, who is known as “Black Jack”, is a Wall Street stockbroker & is of both French & English descent.


Mrs. Janet Norton Lee Bouvier is of Irish descent.*


*The Bouviers divorced in 1940 & Jackie’s mother remarried 2 years later. Her 2nd husband was Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jr., the heir to the Standard Oil Company fortune.


Jackie attended Vassar, the Sorbonne in France & graduated from George Washington University in 1951 with a BA in French literature.



             
                     Jackie at 6 years old
            Photo by David Berne (1935)
                           JFK Library


July 28, 1961


FIRST LADY CELEBRATES 32nd BIRTHDAY


Hyannisport, Massachusetts (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy arrived here late this afternoon to celebrate his wife’s birthday with friends & family.


Mrs. Jacqueline Kennedy is 32 years old today.  


After JFK arrived he took his 3 year old daughter Caroline to a local store & bought her a lollipop & a tootsie roll.



Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy
Official White House Portrait


July 28, 1965


LBJ ORDERS MORE US TROOPS TO VIETNAM


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Lyndon B. Johnson announced today that he is ordering an additional 50,000 American troops to South Vietnam.


The current number of US troops in Southeast Asia is 75,000.  The increase will bring the total number to 125,000.


Reports show that most members of Congress support LBJ’s decision to send more troops.*


*This decision is seen as a major turning point in US involvement in Southeast Asia.



            LBJ & Walt Rostow 
Looking at a model of Khe Sanh


July 28, 1932


HOOVER ORDERS ARMY TO ATTACK BONUS ARMY CAMP AT ANACOSTIA FLATS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Herbert Hoover today ordered the US Army under General Douglas MacArthur to attack the makeshift camp built by World War I veterans who have been in the Nation’s Capital attempting to get Congress to vote them early payment of a bonus due them in 1945.


Many of the veterans have been unemployed for some time & are having great difficulty in taking care of their families.  They believed by coming to Washington they would be able to get the President & Congress on their side.


General MacArthur had his troops set fire to the camp located at Anacostia Flats & drove the “Bonus Marchers” out of town.*


*A Washington newspaper said that if the government of the United States must make war on it own citizens, then this is not America.  FDR felt Hoover’s decision in this matter virtually assured his defeat for re-election.



      US Army Evicts Bonus Marchers
       National Archives Photo (1932)


July 28, 1914


AUSTRIA-HUNGARY DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA


Vienna (JFK+50) The government of Austria-Hungary today declared war on Serbia one month after the Archduke Francis Ferdinand & his wife were gunned down in an open car on the streets of Sarajevo.


After receiving the backing of Germany, Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with an ultimatum just 5 days ago to permit the investigation of the murder of the Archduke & his wife.


Austria-Hungary broke diplomatic relations with Serbia on July 25.*


*This date represents the beginning of the world war, aka “The Great War”.
It would not be known as WWI until after the beginning of the 2nd  World War.



      Coat of Arms of Austria-Hungary
                            1867- 1915

JFK MEETS WITH PRIME MINISTER BALEWA OF NIGERIA

July 27, 1961


JFK MEETS WITH PRIME MINISTER BALEWA OF NIGERIA


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy met with Prime Minister Abubakear Tafawa Balewa today at the White House.


JFK & the Prime Minister reaffirmed their support of the principle of self-determination for dependent peoples as well as their opposition to any form of racial discrimination.


This evening the President attended a dinner given in his honor by Prime Minister Balewa at the Mayflower Hotel.*


*Today Congressional leaders of both parties also expressed support for JFK’s call for an increase in defense spending following increased tension in Berlin.



        Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
       Nigerian Government Photo


July 27, 1962


JFK MEETS WITH PRINCE PHOUMA OF LAOS


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy met with Prince Souvanna Phouma of Laos at the White House today.


At a luncheon given in honor of the prince, JFK said:


“If we can succeed in Laos, it makes the future brighter.”*





Prince Souvanna Phouma of Laos


July 27, 1955


RFK & JUSTICE DOUGLAS BOUND FOR USSR


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel for the Senate Investigation Subcommittee, leaves today to begin a tour of areas of the Soviet Union that have seldom been seen by westerners.


Going along with RFK is Supreme Court justice William O. Douglas.


Mr. Kennedy is on leave from his duties with the Senate.


July 27, 1953


ARMISTICE AGREEMENT REACHED IN KOREA


Panmunjom (JFK+50) An armistice agreement was reached here today by representatives of North & South Korea, the Peoples Republic of China & the United States.


The armistice will end the Korean Conflict which began with the North Korean invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950.


The terms of the agreement establishes a committee to decide the fate of POWs on both sides.


It also provides for a demilitarized zone (DMZ) between North & South Korea.*


*A former assistant principal at my school,  Mr. Bill Neal, served in Korea & came to speak about his experiences to my history classes.  Mr. Neal said that in his 1 year of service in Korea he was only able to bathe 4 times.  



      US & ROK Soldiers Monitor DMZ
          Photo by Edward N. Johnson
                   US Army (2008)


July 27, 1974


NIXON CHARGED WITH ARTICLE ONE BY HOUSE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The House of Representatives today charged President Richard Milhous Nixon with the 1st of 3 articles of impeachment for “obstruction of justice”.


The charge stems from the President’s refusal to release the actual tape recordings made of his conversations about the Watergate affair.*


*On April 29, 1974 Nixon released “edited transcripts” of the conversations but steadfastly refused to give up the actual recordings.



   Nixon Releases Tape Transcripts
                       April 29, 1974
        White House Press Photo


July 27, 2003


BOB HOPE IS DEAD AT THE AGE OF 100


Toluca Lake, California (JFK+50) Bob Hope, the man who entertained thousands of American soldiers in World War II, Korea, Vietnam & the Persian Gulf, died here today at the age of 100.


Hope appeared in more than 50 feature films, hosted the Academy Awards 18 times & was the host of 284 of his own television specials.*


*Bob Hope had a very distinctive nose.  In the White House Rose Garden when JFK presented Hope with a gold medal, the comedian said he would have asked for a “nose job” for the medal, “but it would have meant less gold”.



Bob “Entertaining the Troops” Hope
                      US Army Photo

JFK ANNOUNCES TEST BAN AGREEMENT

July 26, 1963


JFK ANNOUNCES TEST BAN AGREEMENT


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy announced today that an agreement has been reached in Moscow on a nuclear test ban treaty.


The President, speaking to a national television audience tonight, said:


“Yesterday a shaft of light cut into the darkness.  Negotiations were concluded in Moscow on a treaty that will ban all nuclear tests in the air, outer space & under water.”*


This treaty, negotiated by representatives of Great Britain, US & USSR,  will accomplish a major goal of the Kennedy administration.


The President concluded with these words:


“Let us…step back from the shadows of war & seek out the way of peace.  And if that journey is a thousand miles, let history record, that we, in this land, at this time, took the 1st step.”


*Although the treaty was “limited” in that nuclear testing underground was not banned, JFK considered it his “greatest achievement” as President.



        JFK Announces Test Ban Agreement
                            July 26, 1963
                     JFK Library Photo


July 26, 1962


JFK SIGNS WELFARE-REFORM ACT


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy signed into law today a welfare-reform bill that will assist more than 7 million Americans that are now on the relief rolls.


The measure stresses services, rehabilitation & training for useful work.


JFK said:


“Our objective is to prevent or reduce dependence & to encourage self-support.”



        Seal of the Dept. of Human Services
             Formerly the Dept. of Health, 
              Education & Welfare (HEW)


July 26, 1947


NATIONAL SECURITY ACT SIGNED BY TRUMAN


Sacred Cow (JFK+50) President Harry S Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 today on board the Presidential airplane, Sacred Cow.


The act will restructure the US armed forces, foreign policy & the intelligence community. 


NSA merges the Departments of War & the Navy under the Department of Defense.


The act also establishes the National Security Council to coordinate national security policy in the executive branch & creates the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).


The bill was signed by the President aboard Sacred Cow which is the 1st aircraft to be designated Air Force One.



                            Sacred Cow
                       October 17, 1961


July 26, 1945


CHURCHILL STEPS DOWN AS PRIME MINISTER


London, England (JFK+50) Winston Churchill, who led his nation through the darkest days of WWII, was forced to resign as Prime Minister here today.


Churchill’s Conservative Party was defeated by the Labour Party.


Clement Attlee was also sworn in today as the new Prime Minister.*


*2 years later Churchill will reclaim the office of PM & serve until 1955.



       Statue of Sir Winston Churchill
          Parliament Square, London
                Photo by Ziko (2004)


July 26, 1908


NEW FEDERAL INVESTIGATORS REPORT TO DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) US Attorney General Charles Bonaparte today ordered a group of newly hired federal investigators to report to the Office of Chief Examiner in the Department of Justice.*


*A year later the Office of Chief Examiner is renamed the “Bureau of Investigation”.  In 1935, the BI became the “Federal Bureau of Investigation” or FBI.


J. Edgar Hoover joined the Department of Justice in 1917 & within 2 years became Special Assistant to the Attorney General.  Hoover was appointed Director of the Bureau in 1924 & held that position until his death in 1972.



                     FBI Badge & Gun
                            FBI Photo

JFK SPEAKS TO THE NATION ON BERLIN

July 25, 1961


JFK SPEAKS TO THE NATION ON BERLIN


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy spoke to a national television audience this evening on the situation in Berlin.


In response to Soviet threats & the announcement  of an increase in the Soviet military budget, JFK said that he is proposing an additional 217,000 men be added to the US military rolls.


The President also will be asking Congress for $1.8 million to be appropriated for new weapons & military equipment.


In explaining to the American people why these proposals are necessary, JFK said:


“We cannot & will not permit the communists to drive us out of Berlin for the fulfillment of our pledge to that city is essential to the….security of Western Germany, to the unity of Western Europe & to the faith of the entire Free World.”


JFK concluded his speech by saying:


“In meeting my responsibilities….I need your….support &, above all, your prayers.”



Presidential Address to the Nation
                      July 25, 1961


July 25, 1915


KENNEDYS ANNOUNCE BIRTH OF FIRST CHILD


Hull, Massachusetts (JFK+50) Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy announced the birth today of their first child, a son, named Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr.


Joe Junior was delivered by Kennedy family doctor Frederick L. Good in a rented cottage on Atlantic Avenue in Nantasket.*


*Joe Jr. graduated from Harvard in 1938, studied at the London School of Economics, served as a delegate to the 1940 Democratic Convention & joined the US Navy in WWII.  Joe Jr. flew Liberator bombers based in England & was killed during a mission on August 12, 1944.



              “The Golden Trio”
       Joe Jr., Kathleen & Jack 
                 London (1938)


July 25, 1945


TRUMAN TELLS STALIN ABOUT ATOMIC BOMB


Potsdam, Germany (JFK+50) President Harry S Truman informed Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union today that the United States has successfully developed a new weapon.


Mr. Truman characterized the atomic bomb as “the most terrible (weapon) in the history of the world.”


The information was passed along by the President only after Stalin had given his pledge to join the US in the war against Japan.*


Afterwards, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain said to the President “How did it go”?  


Truman replied: “He (Stalin) never asked a question.”


Note: Eyewitnesses to the conversation between Truman & Stalin commented later that Stalin showed little reaction to the news of the bomb.

*Most advisers believed it was necessary to inform the USSR of the development of the atomic bomb to prevent a post-war atmosphere of suspicion.





           Stalin, Truman & Churchill
                    Potsdam, Germany
                Truman Library Photo


July 25, 1969


NIXON ANNOUNCES “VIETNAMIZATION” POLICY


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Richard M. Nixon announced today the United States will slowly withdraw its troops from Southeast Asia & replace them with South Vietnamese troops.*


*This policy will be known as “Vietnamization” & the “Nixon Doctrine”. 




July 25, 1965


BOB DYLAN ELECTRIFIES NEWPORT FESTIVAL


Newport, Rhode Island (JFK+50) Folk singer-songwriter Bob Dylan performed today at the Newport Folk Festival playing an electric guitar instead of his customary acoustic.*


*Dylan, who rose to fame with “Blowin’ in the Wind” & “The Times Are A-Changin'”, was the premier folk song writer of the 1960s.




JFK GREETS BOYS NATION AT THE WHITE HOUSE

JULY 24, 1963


JFK GREETS BOYS NATION AT THE WHITE HOUSE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy greeted delegates to the “Boys Nation” convention today at the White House.


Boys Nation is a program sponsored by the American Legion.


Two delegates are selected from each of 49 states. (Hawaii does not participate).


The delegates have just completed their junior year of high school.*


*One of the two delegates from the state of Arkansas was future president William Jefferson Clinton who had his picture made shaking hands with JFK.



Bill Clinton Shaking Hands with JFK
     The White House Rose Garden
                        July 24, 1963


July 24, 1963


CASTRO SEIZES US EMBASSY BUILDING IN CUBA


Havana, Cuba (JFK+50) Fidel Castro ordered the seizure of the American Embassy building here today in response to the freezing of Cuban assets in the United States.


The US Embassy, located on Malecon Drive in Havana, has been occupied by the Swiss since the US broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961.


Castro wants the Swiss to evacuate the property.



          Embassy of Switzerland
              US Interests Section
            Havana, Cuba (2007)


July 24, 1962


JFK CALLS FOR EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy today called for equal rights for women.


The President gave the order that discrimination against women in employment & promotion be eliminated in the executive departments.


JFK said:


“I intend that the federal career service be maintained without discrimination & with equal opportunity for employment & advancement.”


July 24, 1959


KHRUSHCHEV & NIXON DEBATE IN THE KITCHEN


Moscow, USSR (JFK+50) Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union & Vice President Richard Nixon of the United States squared off in a heated debate today at the American National Exhibition here in Moscow.


The Vice-President told Premier Khrushchev that he “should not be afraid of ideas” while Khrushchev responded to Nixon, “you don’t know anything about communism except fear of it.”*


*The discussion on the merits of communism versus capitalism was held in the kitchen of a model home built for the expedition thus the name “Kitchen Debate”.



                Khrushchev & Nixon 
                    Kitchen Debate
                      July 24, 1959


July 24, 1969


APOLLO 11 RETURNS SAFELY TO THE EARTH


Honolulu, Hawaii (JFK+50) When President John F. Kennedy announced in 1961 the US would land a man on the moon “in this decade”, he also added “& return him safely to the earth.”


Today, the 2nd part of the goal was accomplished as the crew of Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean.


The Columbia spacecraft was retrieved & the crew brought safely aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet.


The crew was immediately placed in a “Mobile Quarantine Facility” where they are to remain for 5 days.*


*There was concern at the time about the astronauts bringing back germs from the moon.  Today the USS Hornet is a museum in Alameda, California.



   Apollo 11’s Columbia Spacecraft
                After Splashdown


July 24, 1987


JENNIFER LEIGH WHITE BORN AT FT. SANDERS


Knoxville, Tennessee (JFK+50) Mr. & Mrs. John White announced today the birth of their daughter, Jennifer Leigh White at Fort Sanders Presbyterian Hospital here in the city.*


*Jennifer celebrated her 24th birthday today.  We are very proud of her.  She is a graduate of East Tennessee State University &  is the current Miss Historic Jonesborough 2011.



           Jennifer Leigh White
  Miss Historic Jonesborough 2011
Signing Autographs  in Jackson, TN
        Photo by John White (2011)


July 24, 1911


MACHU PICCHU DISCOVERED IN PERU


Cuzco, Peru (JFK+50) American archaeologist Hiram Bingham has discovered the ancient Inca settlement Machu Picchu northwest of Cuzco in Peru.


The name of the Incan city means “Old Peak” in the native Quechua language.


The site stretches for 5 miles & has over 3000 stone steps.*



                    Machu Picchu
Photo by Martin St-Amant (2009)


July 24, 1847


BRIGHAM YOUNG LEADS MORMONS TO UTAH


Salt Lake, Utah (JFK+50) Brigham Young led 148 Mormon pioneers into the Great Salt Lake Valley of Utah today after 17 months of travel.


Young led his people west seeking “a place on this earth nobody else wants.”*


*Young & his people begin to build Salt Lake City at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains.



                  Brigham Young
Photo by Charles William Carter
                       1866-1867


July 24, 1567


MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS FORCED TO ABDICATE


Loch Leven, Scotland (JFK+50) Mary Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate here today where she has been imprisoned.


Mary married her lover, the Earl of Bothwell who was a suspect in the death of Mary’s 1st husband, Lord James Darnley, whom she had married to reinforce her claim to the English throne.*


*In 1587 Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded for treason & her son, King James VI of Scotland became King in 1603.



Mary Queen of Scots & Lord Darnley


JFK HONORS PRESIDENT MONROY OF ECUADOR

July 23, 1962


JFK HONORS PRESIDENT MONROY OF ECUADOR


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy honored President Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy of Ecuador today at a White House luncheon.


The President’s mother, Rose, served as hostess for the luncheon as Jacqueline Kennedy is away from the White House.*


*President Monroy would be ousted from power in a military coup in 1963 after 2 failed attempts to impeach him.  One source says that he was disliked for his “leftist leanings” but more so because of his “immoderate drinking”.





 Carlos Julio Arosenmena Monroy
           President of Ecuador 
         Photo of Monument by
Markus Lampe, Resthausen (2005)


July 23, 1962


JFK’S NEWS CONFERENCE TELECAST LIVE TO EUROPE VIA “TELSTAR”


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) History was made today at the State Department Auditorium when President Kennedy’s news conference was transmitted live to Europe.


During the conference, JFK was asked the following question:


“Mr. President, now that the US image is being transmitted instantaneously overseas by Telstar, do you think the (TV) networks should do something about the “vast wasteland”?”*


*The “vast wasteland” was a term coined in 1961 by FCC chairman Newton Minow who in commenting about the quality of American TV programming said:

“When television is good, nothing is better (but) when television is bad, nothing is worse.”


JFK, obviously not wanting to be critical of the networks, laughed & said:


“I’m going to leave Mr. Minow to argue the “wasteland” issue, I think.”



                        Newton Minow
                         FCC Chairman


July 23, 1962


JFK DECLINES TO BLAME SENATE DEMOCRATS FOR MEDICARE’S DEMISE


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) At his news conference today, President Kennedy was reminded that when his Medicare Bill was defeated in the Senate he had said that a “handful” of Democrats joined with Republicans to vote against the bill.


The reporter said:  “There were 21.  Wasn’t it a pretty big handful & won’t this tend to inhibit you (on this issue)?”


JFK answered:


“No!  2/3 of the Democrats voted for (Medicare). 1/3 voted against.  About 6/7 or 7/8 of the Republicans voted against it.  So this combination of almost total Republican opposition with 1/3 of the Democrats defeated us by 52-45.”


JFK continued:


“The fact is this Administration is for Medicare & 2/3 of the Democrats are for (it) & 7/8 of the Republicans are against it. That seems to me to be the issue.”*


*EDITORIAL COMMENT


Medicare passed, of course, under LBJ.  


The question I have is how many of the Senate Republicans who voted against Medicare in 1962 (or for that matter of the Republicans in the US today) refused (or refuse) to accept Medicare coverage? 


Just asking!



                        Medicare ID Card


July 23, 1959


SENATE DEFEATS JFK’S BILL ON STUDENT LOANS

Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) The United States Senate today defeated Senator John F. Kennedy’s (D-Massachusetts) bill to remove the “loyalty oath” students must sign as a requirement to receive a federal loan.


Students who apply for a federal loan for college tuition must sign an oath swearing that they have never been connected with the Communist Party or any other subversive organization.


July 23, 1935


JOE KENNEDY MAKES COVER OF “TIME”


New York City (JFK+50) FDR’s chairman of the Securities & Exchange Commission, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., has made the cover of Time magazine.


Mr. Kennedy’s picture includes the caption:


 “He makes it easy for the honest”.



July 23, 1885


ULYSSES S. GRANT DEAD AT 63


Mount McGregor, New York (JFK+50) The 18th President of the United States, Ulysses Simpson Grant, died here today at the age of 63.


The former president had just completed his “memoirs” which he had been working on despite his illness in order to provide financial assistance to his family.


Mr. Grant died of throat cancer.


U.S. Grant graduated from West Point in 1843 & served in the war with Mexico.


He resigned from the army but re-enlisted when the Civil War began.


Although one of our country’s most successful military leaders, Grant proved to be one of the least successful presidents.


He was elected in 1868 & re-elected in 1872, but his administration was marked by scandal.



                       U.S. Grant 
       Writing His “Memoirs”
                            1885

KENNEDYS HOST JOHN GLENN’S FAMILY FOR WEEKEND AT HYANNIS

July 22, 1962


KENNEDYS HOST JOHN GLENN’S FAMILY FOR WEEKEND AT HYANNIS


Hyannisport, Massachusetts (JFK+50) NASA astronaut John Glenn, his wife & family were entertained today by President & Mrs. Kennedy here at the summer White House.


Members of the Glenn family were taken on cruises & enjoyed water skiing.*


*JFK had a mishap when his sailboat, Victura, ran around near the family compound & also when the mainsail collapsed during relaunch.



Bob Kennedy & Family on the Victura
                   JFK Library Photo


July 22, 1961


CANADIAN PM & JFK LINKED BY MICROWAVE RADIO TRANSMISSION


Hyannisport, Massachusetts (JFK+50) Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker of Canada called President John F. Kennedy today on a new broadband microwave communications system which crosses Canada & links Alaska to the continental United States.


The Prime Minister said:


“I am very pleased at this opportunity to welcome you again on behalf of the people of Canada.”



              John G. Diefenbaker
       Prime Minister of Canada
                    (1957-1963)
   Photo by Paul Horsdal (1962)


July 22, 1959


RFK ACCUSES HOFFA ON JACK PARR


New York City (JFK+50) Robert F. Kennedy made an appearance on the Jack Parr television show tonight. 


Bob Kennedy did not have many nice things to say about Jimmy Hoffa.


Kennedy told Parr & his audience to call or write their congressmen in support of labor reform legislation.


He also leveled harsh accusations against Mr. Hoffa, the president of the Teamsters Union.*


*Oddly while RFK was in the process of giving out the names of labor racketeers associated with Hoffa the audio went out.



July 22, 1956


JFK NARRATES FILM ON HISTORY OF DEMOCRATIC PARTY


Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy today narrated a 20 minute film on the history of the Democratic Party.


The film, directed by MGM’s Dore Schary, is to be shown at the 1956 Democratic National Convention.


JFK, following a script that he edited, traces the history of Democrats back to Thomas Jefferson.


July 22, 1938


NUNS FROM SPAIN TAKE REFUGE IN ENGLAND


London, England (JFK+50) 28 nuns from Barcelona, Spain were given refuge today here in England thanks to efforts by US Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.


With the help of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain & the co-operation of the Spanish government, the Nuns were brought to London aboard the British warship Hero.


The nuns will be staying at various Sacred Heart convents in England.


July 22, 1934


PUBLIC ENEMY #1 SHOT DEAD BY G MEN


Chicago, Illinois (JFK+50) John Dillinger, labeled as “Public Enemy #1” by J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI, was killed by federal agents outside the Biograph Theater this evening.

  
        John Dillinger’s Mugshot
                         FBI Photo


Dillinger’s gang had robbed 11 banks of $300,000 in just over a year.  The Dillinger Gang is also responsible for the deaths of 7 police officers & 3 federal agents.


Anna Sage, a brothel madam in Chicago & friend of Dillinger’s, co-operated with the FBI in tracking him down.


She & Dillinger watched the gangster movie “Manhattan Melodrama” as 20 FBI agents & police officers waited outside.


Sage wore an orange dress to identify herself for the officers.


At 10:40 p.m. as Dillinger & Sage emerged from the theater, officers ordered him to surrender.


Instead he attempted to escape & was shot down in an alley at the end of the block.



               Biograph Theater 
                Chicago, Illinois
                      FBI Photo


July 22, 1862


LINCOLN TELLS CABINET ABOUT EMANCIPATION


Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President Abraham Lincoln informed his cabinet today at the White House that he intends to emancipate the slaves.


He said he will wait, however, until after a great Union victory to make a public announcement of his Emancipation Proclamation.*


*Obviously, this would not have appeared on this day since he was privately informing his cabinet of his decision.  


The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862 after the Battle of Antietam in Sharpsburg, Maryland.  

President Lincoln with his Cabinet

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